Mac Pro video

The query of which Mac to make use of for video enhancing is not that straightforward. There are numerous variables. The solution depends upon whether or not you’re a skilled video editor operating independently or as a part of a studio or any individual who enjoys enhancing house films. It’s worthwhile to be operating on a large enhancing venture with terabytes of property, going through months of put up manufacturing paintings. Possibly you’re hoping to hurry up the time it takes to place in combination wedding ceremony movies in your purchasers. Or perhaps you need to make movies for a YouTube channel or to percentage with friends and family.

No matter your causes to search for a Mac for video enhancing, and no matter your wishes, we’ve got were given you coated.

Why video editors use Macs

There is a little bit of an elephant within the room that we want to deal with first. There was once a time when Macs have been liked by way of video editors. Within the early days Apple’s Macs had some transparent benefits over PCs that benefitted creatives, on the other hand lately Apple has misplaced the hearts of a lot of the ones inventive execs who used to make a choice Mac over PC.

There are a couple of the explanation why such a lot of creatives ended their love affair with Apple. Many felt omitted by way of the corporate who gave the look to be spending extra time at the iPhone and the consumer-focused Macs whilst ignoring – and incessantly inflicting – issues of execs. This almost definitely got here to a head with the coming of the 2013 Mac Professional, which got here after years of criticism that Apple was once neglecting inventive professionals and which Apple printed at WWDC with a lot fanfare. The 2013 Mac Professional – which (most likely prophetically) turned into referred to as the Trash Can Mac – will have mended the wear and tear that were achieved however sadly it made issues even worse.

2013 Mac Pro

The issue with the 2013 Mac Professional was once that it wasn’t constrained by way of its design to such an extent that Apple could not even replace it. The Mac Professional wasn’t up to date in any respect from 2013 till 2019 when the brand new Mac Professional arrived. In the ones years it kind of feels that Apple realized a couple of courses about being attentive to creatives. Apple even staff a couple of skilled creatives to lend a hand it create the machines that they would like and want.

The step forward got here in 2016 when Apple admitted that it had designed itself right into a nook with the Mac Professional and printed that it was once making giant plans for Macs that might solution the prayers of creatives. Issues did not occur temporarily. The iMac Professional arrived first in December 2017. This iMac in a brand new Area Gray design had a excessive value however had the workstation processors and graphics playing cards to check. Then, most likely sadly for iMac Professional lovers, Apple eager about creating the Mac Professional which arrived on the finish of 2019. The iMac Professional hasn’t been up to date because it introduced and, marvel marvel, Apple discontinued it within the spring of 2021.

iMac Pro

If individuals are involved that the overlook of the iMac Professional means that Apple’s now not truly realized it is lesson and is continuous to overlook inventive professionals, the life of the Mac Professional will have to cross some solution to point out that isn’t the case. Even if as an excessively area of interest device it will nonetheless be argued that the standard inventive professionals who used to shop for the G4 Energy Mac nonetheless do not need a Mac that fits their wishes at a value level this is proper for them.

The Mac Professional is the Mac Professional that Apple will have to have offered in 2013. It solutions most of the needs of creatives and video execs with extraordinarily robust parts and a extra appropriate design. In reality, even though the Mac Professional is amazingly pricey it is in reality superb price for cash if you wish to have the ones parts which might be presented as construct to reserve choices. However most likely probably the most enjoyable alternate for creatives is the truth that the Mac Professional is expandable and upgradable by way of the consumer. That is the most important for many who wish to long run evidence those extraordinarily pricey machines.

Mac Pro 2019

The Mac Professional goes to be overkill for newbie and past-time video editors regardless that. If so customers will probably be searching for one thing more cost effective, however nonetheless appropriate for his or her wishes. The important thing issues to search for if so are a sufficiently huge SSD for the shear quantity of property you usually are operating with, sufficient RAM, as many cores as you’ll have the funds for, and a just right graphics card. You additionally want to determine what the necessities of your favoured enhancing instrument are – and another post-production gear it’s possible you’ll want.

There is one thing more to imagine if you’re having a look to shop for a Mac at this time. Apple is in the course of a transition from Intel to its personal, handmade, processors. Apple started the method with the M1, which is being utilized in its consumer-targetted Macs: the MacBook Air, entry-level MacBook Professional and Mac mini fashions and the 24in iMac. Apple made some giant claims in regards to the M1 chip and it delivered, so there are expectancies that the successor to the M1, be it the M1X or M2, will probably be exceptional.

You’ll be able to examine what is anticipated for the M1X or M2 in our information spherical up in regards to the new processor and graphics which might be coming to the pro-focused Macs later in 2021 and in 2022. Apple is claimed to be creating in-house CPUs that boast 16-cores and 32-core GPUs.

If you’re focused on Apple’s abilty to check discrete graphics of AMD and the like, you can be to be told that Apple is the use of the extra environment friendly Tile Primarily based Deferred Rendering (TBDR) somewhat than the Speedy Mode Rendering (IMR) as utilized by Intel, Nvidia and AMD GPUs.

Apple mentioned that the transition from Intel can be whole by way of the summer time of 2022, even though we think that it’ll drag on till the tip of that yr.

We’re going to run concept all of the other Macs that Apple sells at this time that it’s possible you’ll wish to imagine beneath, however we will get started off by way of going over the important thing parts you will have to be having a look out for.

What video editors want

As we’ve got indicated above, there are some things to remember when choosing the most efficient Mac in your video enhancing wishes.

Virtual video puts large calls for on processor energy, graphics energy (for rendering) and – above all – cupboard space. Enhancing video, particularly high-definition video, eats up arduous power house, and with 4K enhancing now a part of lifestyles, that is best going to transform extra of a subject.

Specifically it is very important imagine what you wish to have on the subject of display screen high quality and dimension, portability, RAM, CPU, graphics, garage, battery lifestyles, ports and peripherals. We’re going to take a look at every of those beneath.

You additionally want to make certain that the Mac helps the instrument you wish to have to run, corresponding to Apple’s personal Ultimate Lower Professional in addition to Adobe Premiere Professional and After Results, three-D instrument like Maya and and color correction instrument corresponding to Da Vinci Get to the bottom of.

We would advise you to make certain that your Mac is long run evidence – it would be best to get a just right few years out of it – however watch out that the Mac of your goals does not finally end up costing you greater than you need to spend.

Display screen

As a video editor you are going to almost definitely have the benefit of a big, excessive answer display screen, by which case you can be attracted to a 27in iMac – the most important display screen you’ll get on a Mac at this time. Observe there is not any distinction between the display screen on the usual 27in iMac and the display screen at the iMac Professional (which has been discontinued, however you might to find it on sale nonetheless) – each be offering 27in LED-backlit show with 5120×2880 pixels (5K), 500 nits brightness and Large (P3) color.

The 5K Retina Show at the iMac and the iMac Professional is a factor of superb good looks. In our evaluate of the iMac Professional we examined the show and located the perfect distinction ratio we’ve got ever observed, and it shows 99 in line with cent of the DCI-P3 color house. (DCI-P3 is the color house for virtual film projection.)

For the reason that Retina Show is built-in into the iMac, it runs at 60MHz somewhat than the 30MHz discovered on maximum 4K displays. The 5K dimension is, itself, best for video enhancing as it lets you edit 4K video at complete dimension and spot the controls round it.

Alternatively, you’ll at all times plug in a 2d show, so you should not rule out a Mac pc such because the 13 or 16in MacBook Professional, either one of which might give you the additional advantage of portability. If so there’s a transparent get advantages for the 16in fashion with its higher display screen (3072×1920 pixels in comparison to 2560×1600 pixels) however each have 500 nits brightness and Large (P3) color. The laptops additionally be offering True Tone – a generation that adjusts the colors and brightness of the display screen to fit the atmosphere (it is helpful when you paintings in a dismal studio).

There is every other display screen generation it’s possible you’ll wish to imagine. In August 2020 Apple up to date the 27in iMac with, amongst different issues, the brand new possibility to make a choice a brand new nano-texture glass possibility. Examine whether or not the Nano glass is price purchasing right here (it is every other £500!)

16in MacBook Pro

RAM

It would be best to max your Mac out with probably the most RAM you’ll have the funds for. How a lot you wish to have is determined by the instrument you’re the use of and the quantity of information you’re operating with or video you’re rendering. We would suggest that whilst you purchase your Mac you overestimate the quantity of RAM you wish to have as a result of Apple makes it rather tricky to replace RAM later in lots of Macs. Alternatively, within the ones most well liked with video editors: 27in iMac and the Mac Professional it is possible for you to to replace the RAM your self if you wish to have to.

In the event you have been to imagine an M1 Mac, such because the M1 Mac mini, or the 24in iMac you can be involved that every one M1 Macs are best ready to take as much as 16GB RAM. That does not sound like so much whilst you imagine that the 27in iMac can take 64GB RAM. Alternatively, 8GB or 16GB RAM at the M1 chip is not the similar as 16GB or RAM that includes an Intel Mac. That is Unified Reminiscence, which sits with the GPU and CPU so that every one the ones cores can get right of entry to it on every occasion they want to. Nonetheless, when you assume you are going to want 16GB RAM then you definately probbaly wish to look forward to the successor to the M1, which is certain to make stronger extra RAM.

The opposite reason why to keep away from M1 Macs is that you’ll’t replace the RAM within them at a later date, it is almost definitely now not well worth the possibility of wanting extra RAM at some point.

This is how a lot RAM you’ll get:

  • All M1 Macs – 8GB RAM as same old, 16GB improve
  • Mac Professional – 32GB RAM as same old, 48GB, 96GB, 192GB, 384GB, 768GB, 1.5TB improve
  • 27in iMac – 8GB RAM as same old, 16GB, 32GB or 64GB improve
  • 16in MacBook Professional – 16GB RAM as same old, 32GB or 64GB improve
  • Mac mini (Intel fashion) – 8GB RAM as same old, 16GB, 32GB or 64GB improve
  • 13in MacBook Professional (2.0GHz Intel fashion) – 16GB RAM as same old, 32GB improve.

CPU

As we mentioned above, Apple is these days underging an enormous transition of all Macs to its personal processors in accordance with the Arm structure. For now regardless that, no less than in the case of the excessive finish Macs highest suited for skilled video enhancing, best Intel processors are to be had (that isn’t to mention that an M1 Mac would not make a perfect novice video enhancing device). This will likely alternate over the following yr and when it does we will be able to replace the recommendation right here accordingly.

We advise that the worse you’re about video enhancing the extra cores you select. Lately the selection of cores on be offering from even Apple’s maximum same old machines is best than ever.

Additionally it is price opting for an i7 or i9 processor – typically build-to-order choices. Those processors be offering hyper-threading (even though now not all do, so take a look at), which means that the working machine can deal with every core as though it is two digital cores. Then again make a choice a Xeon processor as discovered within the Mac Professional (and the previous iMac Professional) which additionally be offering hyper-threading.

Additionally glance out for the quantity of cache. As an example, the Xeon within the iMac Professional had 42MB cache in comparison to 16MB within the 27in iMac. If two processors have the similar GHz however other quantities of cache, the only with extra cache will carry out higher. 

This is an summary of what is to be had:

Mac Professional

  • 3.5GHz 8-core Intel Xeon W
  • 3.3GHz 12-core Intel Xeon W
  • 3.2GHz 16-core Intel Xeon W
  • 2.7GHz 24-core Intel Xeon W
  • 2.5GHz 28-core Intel Xeon W

27in iMac

  • 3.1GHz 6-core Tenth-gen Intel Core i5
  • 3.3GHz 6-core Tenth-gen Intel Core i5
  • 3.8GHz 8-core Tenth-gen Intel Core i9
  • BTO: 3.6GHz 10-core Tenth-gen Intel Core i9

iMac Professional (the place to be had)

  • 3.0GHz 10-core Intel Xeon W
  • 2.5GHz 14-core Intel Xeon W
  • 2.3GHz 18-core Intel Xeon W

16in MacBook Professional

  • 2.6GHz 6-core Ninth-gen Intel Core i7
  • 2.3GHz 8-core Ninth-gen Intel Core i9
  • 2.4GHz 8-core Ninth-gen Intel Core i9

Mac mini

  • M1 8-core CPU, 8-core GPU
  • 3.0GHz 6-core Eighth-gen Intel Core i5

13in 2.0GHz MacBook Professional

  • M1 8-core CPU, 8-core GPU
  • 2.0GHz quad-core Tenth-gen Intel Core i5

Graphics

Some of the obstacles of Macs is that the discrete playing cards on be offering are best AMD graphics. No Nvidia right here. Alternatively, for the reason that arrival of the Mac Professional the choices are rather in depth.

Observe, as we mentioned above that as Apple transitions from Intel to its personal processors we’re prone to see Apple’s personal graphics answers getting used. As but the M1 Macs graphics choices are higher than built-in Intel graphics, however they’re no fit for discrete choices from AMD and the like. Plus the M1 Macs cannot make stronger an eGPU, so that isn’t even an possibility.

Mac Professional

  • One Radeon Professional 580X MPX Module with 8GB of GDDR5 reminiscence
  • One or two Radeon Professional W5700X MPX Modules with 16GB of GDDR6 reminiscence every
  • One or two Radeon Professional Vega II MPX Modules with 32GB of HBM2 reminiscence every
  • One or two Radeon Professional Vega II Duo MPX Modules with 64GB of HBM2 reminiscence every

27in iMac

  • Radeon Professional 570X with 4GB of GDDR5 reminiscence
  • Radeon Professional 575X with 4GB of GDDR5 reminiscence
  • Radeon Professional 580X with 8GB of GDDR5 reminiscence
  • Radeon Professional Vega 48 with 8GB of HBM2 reminiscence

iMac Professional (the place to be had)

  • Radeon Professional Vega 56 with 8GB of HBM2 reminiscence
  • Radeon Professional Vega 64 with 16GB of HBM2 reminiscence
  • Radeon Professional Vega 64X with 16GB of HBM2 reminiscence

16in MacBook Professional

The 16in MacBook Professional gives a twin graphics arrange, with an built-in Intel UHD Graphics 630 and one of the most following:

  • Radeon Professional 5300M with 4GB of GDDR6 reminiscence
  • Radeon Professional 5500M with 4GB of GDDR6 reminiscence
  • Radeon Professional 5500M with 8GB of GDDR6 reminiscence

Each the Mac mini and the 13in MacBook Professional send with built-in Intel graphics. Those may well be sufficient in your wishes, then again it is advisable imagine the use of an eGPU with them.

Garage

If you need so as to paintings temporarily a forged state power is a will have to – so if the Mac you’re looking at does not send as same old with an SSD ensure that to make a choice one as a construct to reserve possibility, thankfully it’s now uncommon to peer an iMac with a difficult power or Fusion Force, however you might even see an older fashion on sale from a reseller and be tempted.

The opposite just right information is that Apple’s lately been expanding the scale of the usual SSDs that send within its Macs, so you will not need to pay as a lot to get the garage you wish to have. We would suggest 512MB minimal.

And if you wish to have greater than 512MB then you’ll be able to be satisfied to be told that the 27in iMac and the Mac Professional offe as much as 8TB.

Ports and enlargement choices

The very last thing to imagine is the ports. Operating with video will inevitably imply that you wish to have to plug in quite a lot of peripherals, by which case you are going to need ok ports and different enlargement choices, corresponding to PCI Categorical enlargement slots may additionally come in useful.

Mac Professional

  • Two USB 3 ports (backwards suitable with USB A)
  • As much as 12 Thunderbolt 3/USB C ports (relying at the fashion selected)
  • Twin 10Gb Ethernet
  • 8 PCI Categorical enlargement slots (relying at the fashion selected)

27in iMac

  • 4 USB 3 ports (backwards suitable with USB A)
  • Two Thunderbolt 3/USB C ports
  • Gigabit Ethernet
  • SDXD Slot

iMac Professional (the place to be had)

  • 4 USB 3 ports (backwards suitable with USB A)
  • 4 Thunderbolt 3/USB C ports
  • 10Gb Ethernet
  • SDXD Slot

Mac mini (Intel fashion)

  • Two USB 3 ports (backwards suitable with USB A)
  • 4 Thunderbolt 3/USB C ports
  • Gigabit Ethernet or 10Gb Ethernet
  • HDMI 2.0 Port

16in MacBook Professional

  • 4 Thunderbolt 3 (USB‑C) ports

13in MacBook Professional (Intel fashion)

  • 4 Thunderbolt 3 (USB‑C) ports
  • Observe: entry-level fashion best has two ports and will have to be have shyed away from

The M1 Macs are extra restricted in the case of ports, normally delivery with Two Thunderbolt / USB 4 ports.

Which Mac is highest for video enhancing?

So, which Mac will probably be right for you? As we mentioned in the beginning this depends upon your wishes. So, somewhat than let you know that the Mac Professional is the most efficient (which, if cash was once no object, it will be), we will take a look at every of the choices and can run concept the professionals and cons from the standpoint of a video editor.

Right through this newsletter we’ve got been working throughout the several types of Mac so as of without equal to probably the most fundamental, so we will proceed that right here. However, as now we have mentioned already, without equal Mac might be overkill for you, so take a look at the most suitable option that comes to your value fluctuate.

Mac Professional

Mac Pro

Beginning at £5,499/$5,999 for the 8-core Intel Xeon 3.5GHz fashion, with 32GB RAM, 256GB SSD, and Radeon Professional 580X graphics card, the cost of the bottom Mac Professional fashion is not in reality all that other to the beginning value of the iMac Professional. However when you have been to spec it up with all of the quite a lot of choices to be had then it is advisable spend up to £50,899 /  / $51,399 / AU$78,099 and that is the reason earlier than including an Afterburner card and wheels.

It is a excessive value to pay, however crucially it is the value you will have to be expecting to pay for this type of configuration. PC producers who make PCs with those configuration choices will rate the similar – or extra.

If it is the final Mac you wish to have regardless that this might be the only for you. It gives probably the most on the subject of RAM, CPU, graphics, garage, ports and expandabilty. This latter level is essential as it is one thing this is of maximum significance to many video editors. The modular design of the Mac Professional way you’ll selected the parts and enlargement choices you wish to have at level of sale – or, crucially, in a while.

As we discussed above the Mac Professional does not have a display screen – you would have to purchase one one at a time. It’s worthwhile to purchase the astronomically priced Apple Professional Show XDR (which begins at £4,599 / $4,999 / AU$8,499), or you select one thing that did not price nearly the similar value as an iMac Professional.

From: £5,499 / $5,999 / AU$9,999 – Purchase a Mac Professional right here.

27in iMac

Best iMac for video editing: 27in iMac

We’d normally say that the most efficient Mac for extra reasonable video editors is the 27in iMac. It gives some nice options that will probably be ultimate for video editors, in conjunction with the 5K 27in Retina show, a quick processor, devoted graphics card, and rather a lot extra. 

Apple up to date the 27in iMac in August 2020 so it is a just right time to shop for – until you fancy looking forward to the rumoured redesign that can be coming once 2021. To find out what we expect from the brand new iMac right here.

For the reason that August 2020 replace, the bottom fashion (£1,749/$1,799) has include an Tenth-gen 3.1GHz 6-core i5 processor and a Radeon Professional 5300 with 4GB video reminiscence. This isn’t the fashion we’d suggest for video enhancing – if you’re occupied with enhancing video on an iMac it is very important go for a couple of build-to-order choices at level of sale. 

First off the paltry 8GB of RAM as same old must be addressed. You can want no less than 16GB (+ £200 / $200 / AU$300), however we would suggest 32GB (+ £600 / $600 / AU$900) if you’ll have the funds for it.

We used to suggest ditching the 1TB Fusion power which used to send as same old, however now there may be 256GB SSD. That is nice information, however we would nonetheless suggest choosing 512GB garage if you’ll have the funds for it.

A completely specced out 27in iMac may price smartly over £5,000 /$5,000 / AU$7,300, however you would get a 8TB SSD, 128GB RAM and an 10-core i9 processor. That value is not some distance off the beginning value of the iMac Professional and the Mac Professional.

Alternatively, in case your funds does not run to £5,000 or the an identical then you are going to be highest off with an iMac specced as much as your necessities.

From £1,799 / $1,799 / AU$2,799 – Purchase a 27in iMac right here.

MacBook Professional

Best Mac For Video Editing: 16in MacBook Pro

It is additional down the listing as a result of there are inevitably disadvantages to the use of a pc to edit video. The compact nature of the device way it’ll be restricted on the subject of warmth control so probably the most energy parts will probably be a no-go.

Alternatively there also are various benefits buddies with a pc, now not least the truth that you’ll lift it round with you.

We are recommending the 16in MacBook Professional predominantly as a result of, not like the 13in fashions it comes with a discrete graphics card (Radeon Professional 5300M or Radeon Professional 5500M).

In conjunction with the graphics choices you’ll be able to to find robust processor chipsets and as much as 64GB RAM, making it a forged selection.

The 16in fashions get started at £2,399/$2,399 and for that you’ll be able to get a 2.6GHz 6-core processor, 512GB SSD, 16GB RAM (as much as 64GB to be had), and 4 Thunderbolt 3 (USB C) ports. Improve choices come with a 2.4GHz 8-core processor, Radeon Professional 5500M graphics, and as much as 8TB of SSD garage.

To peer our ideas in this addition to the Apple catalogue, learn our 16in MacBook Professional evaluate.

From £2,399 / $2,399 / AU$3,799 – Purchase a MacBook Professional right here.

Mac mini

Best Mac for video editing: Mac mini

The Mac mini may well be observed as a bit of of a wild-card right here. However it is indisputably price bearing in mind Apple’s most cost-effective Mac.

When Apple up to date the Mac mini in 2018 it kind of feels that it had a complete new target audience in thoughts for the device, and in consequence video editors will to find some options that enchantment.

Alternatively, when Apple up to date the Mac mini in 2020 it furnished two of the fashions with M1 chips, whilst proceeding to promote one Intel fashion. 

The Mac mini begins at £699/$699 and gives Apple’s M1 with an 8-core CPU and 8-core GPU, 256GB SSD, 8GB RAM (upgradable to 16GB and 2TB SSD).

Then again the Intel fashion features a 3.0GHz 6-core processor, 256GB SSD, 8GB RAM for £. You’ll be able to improve that to 64GB RAM, and as much as 2TB SSD. There is additionally a ten Gigabit Ethernet possibility.

The one factor that shall we the Mac mini down is the loss of discrete graphics (it ships with Apple’s M1 possibility or the Intel UHD Graphics 630). With the Intel unit you’ll acquire a separate eGPU such because the Blackmagic eGPU for £599/$699. It isn’t imaginable to make use of a eGPU with the M1 Macs.

Excluding the graphics factor it is a nice video-editing device, or even with out an eGPU it will nonetheless compile movies very easily. It is a just right price selection for newbie or much less difficult video editors searching for a succesful however reasonable device. You can want to discover a track and mouse, however likelihood is that you’ve got them anyway.

From £799 / $799 / AU$1,299 – Purchase a Mac mini right here.

13in MacBook Professional

In the event you have been hoping to discover a pc appropriate for video enhancing that would not price you a fortune then it is price having a look on the 13in MacBook Professional – even though we’re best speaking in regards to the mid-range 2.0GHz fashions right here, somewhat than the M1 MacBook Professional, even though if you’re simply an fanatic or an amature video maker the M1 Macs might smartly fit you.

There are lots of the explanation why the 16in MacBook Professional is a better option than the 13in fashions – now not least the truth that the 13in fashion lacks the discrete graphics of its giant brother. Alternatively, the graphics in Apple’s M1 Macs are spectacular, and on the subject of the two.0GHz MacBook Professional you’ll at all times imagine an eGPU.

We would suggest that when you do purchase a MacBook Professional you select one with 16GB RAM as same old, or replace to 16GB RAM as we really feel that’s the minimal required for video enhancing.

From £1,799 / $1,799 / AU$2,999 – Purchase a 13in MacBook Professional right here.

Conclusion

Which Mac will have to you purchase? That depends upon whether or not you are a skilled video editor hitting time limits or an especially enthusiastic novice.

We completely suggest the 27in iMac. Having been up to date in August 2020 we all know that the specifications are up-to-the-minute, and most of the adjustments Apple has made for the brand new era are ideal for video editors. Alternatively, do be expecting Apple to replace the pro-targetted iMac with its personal processor and graphics answer later in 2021.

The Mac Professional was once meant to reply to the prayers of many video editors, however it is not transparent if Apple has achieved sufficient to win again the hearts of video execs and whether or not the corporate will ever be taken significantly within the high-end of the marketplace once more. It is not likely that you are going to truly want a Mac Professional until you have compatibility into this actual target audience.

The 16in MacBook Professional is a great video-editing device, and the only to get if you wish to have to edit video at the transfer, however once more, it is a Mac this is prone to get one in every of Apple’s M-series processors quickly.

And the wild card is the Mac mini, which is a smart possibility for someone who needs to stay prices down.

We even have this information to the most efficient Mac for photograph enhancing.